France, Poland and Ukraine have imposed partial lockdowns as they try to control surging coronavirus infections.
Parts of Paris and Kyiv faced new restrictions with most businesses shut and people urged to work from home.
In France, the government introduced new measures after a rise in COVID-19 cases in Paris and other parts of northern France.
Under the new measures, non-essential businesses in Paris are closed, while schools remain open and outdoor exercise is allowed up to 10 kilometres from home.
The government argues the measures are needed to relieve pressure on the health system. However, President Emmanuel Macron refused to call this a “lockdown”.
Meanwhile, in Germany cases are rising exponentially, with many expecting new restrictions on work and social life to be introduced in the coming days.
The introduction of new restrictive measures comes as the pace of the European Union’s vaccination rollout remains sluggish and several member countries face a third wave.